By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development
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Extra info for A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control
We have also seen that charged particles, most especially electrons, can also lose energy by the bremsstrahlung process. This type of energy loss is referred to as "radiative loss". Total stopping power is the sum of "collision stopping power" and "radiative stopping power". Energy lost by the radiative process may be deposited in the target some distance from the main particle track, so that when we are concerned with the local deposition of energy, we often use only the collision component. Linear Energy Transfer (LET): Linear Energy Transfer, LL, is a restricted collisional stopping power.
As the transistor evolved from the electron tube, so might it be said that semiconductor detectors evolved from gas detectors. Like the transistor, semiconductor detectors operate on the basis of "electron-hole pairs� rather than "ion pairs�, but may be treated much the same for our purposes. The first immediate advantage of substituting a solid material for a gas is that there is a higher density of atoms with which the radiation can interact, thus giving a higher detection efficiency. Solid materials may be classified into electrical insulators or conductors.
The photoelectron produces excitations or ionizations in the target atoms). Kerma, an acronym for Kinetic Energy Released per unit Mass, is the sum of the kinetic energies of all the charged particles produced in the first stage mentioned above, per unit mass of target material. 6 SOURCES OF RADIATION EXPOSURE Radiation is a natural part of life. It has existed since the beginning of time and is an integral part of the universe in which we live. Life as we know it on earth has evolved in the presence of radiation.
A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control by David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development