By Frederick C. Beiser
Histories of German philosophy within the 19th century normally concentrate on its first half--when Hegel, idealism, and Romanticism ruled. in contrast, the rest of the century, after Hegel's demise, has been fairly missed since it has been noticeable as a interval of stagnation and decline. yet Frederick Beiser argues that the second one 1/2 the century was once in reality some of the most innovative sessions in smooth philosophy as the nature of philosophy itself was once up for grabs and the very absence of simple task resulted in creativity and the beginning of a brand new period.
In this leading edge concise background of German philosophy from 1840 to 1900, Beiser focuses now not on issues or person thinkers yet fairly at the period's 5 nice debates: the identification trouble of philosophy, the materialism controversy, the equipment and boundaries of background, the pessimism controversy, and the "Ignorabimusstreit." Schopenhauer and Wilhelm Dilthey play vital roles in those controversies yet so do many ignored figures, together with Ludwig Buchner, Eugen Duhring, Eduard von Hartmann, Julius Fraunstaedt, Hermann Lotze, Adolf Trendelenburg, and ladies, Agnes Taubert and Olga Pluemacher, who've been thoroughly forgotten in histories of philosophy.
The result's a wide-ranging, unique, and wonderful new account of German philosophy within the severe interval among Hegel and the 20 th century."
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Histories of German philosophy within the 19th century ordinarily specialize in its first half--when Hegel, idealism, and Romanticism ruled. against this, the rest of the century, after Hegel's dying, has been quite overlooked since it has been obvious as a interval of stagnation and decline.
L'Art de los angeles guerre, publié en 1521, occupe une position singulière dans l'oeuvre de Machiavel. Présenté sous los angeles forme d'un discussion, l'ouvrage surprend par son esprit peu machiavélique. Les considérations tactiques y côtoient les propos consacrés aux nécessités matérielles de l. a. guerre (recrutement, armement.
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A lo largo de los angeles historia, algunos libros han cambiado el mundo. Han transformado los angeles manera en que nos vemos a nosotros mismos y a los demás. Han inspirado el debate, l. a. discordia, l. a. guerra y l. a. revolución. Han iluminado, indignado, provocado y consolado. Han enriquecido vidas, y también las han destruido.
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Barjavel’s acumen is having made the tale sufficiently breathless so that the reader has no more time or leisure to question the nature of the phenomenon than the characters themselves, who are grabbed by the throat and constantly overwhelmed by the unforeseen outcomes of the electric annihilation. 50 The two main speeches about this disappearance thus amount to confessions of ignorance, and propose hypotheses typical of XSF-2 worlds. The first is uttered by professor Portin, an exemplary representative of the science that had until then been celebrated, but which had now became powerless.
It is true that the characters sometimes propose scientific or theological hypotheses about this disappearance (variation of sunspots or divine punishment). But nothing ever confirms their conjectures, which in any case are barely sketched out. Only the destructive effects of the event on the “High City” (a Paris dominated by immense towers) matter: conflagrations, falling aircrafts, water shortages, scenes of panic and looting. Catastrophes that extend throughout the entire country, which the narrator describes as the main characters flee far from the urban centers.
Kant tells us: if our world did not obey any necessary law, nothing would subsist of the world. But— we want to reply to him—a world that obeyed no law has no reason to be chaotic rather than ordered: it has to be equally capable of one and the other 31 precisely because we cannot impose limits on it. At bottom, it seems that Kant brings into play an implicit law that allows him to affirm the identity between a world without necessary laws and radical chaos: this law is a probabilistic law. Kant makes the following implicit argument: if a world were lawless, if the least of its parcels could behave indifferently in any way whatsoever, it would take an extraordinary chance to compose a global and durable order, like the nature that confronts us.
After Hegel: German Philosophy, 1840-1900 by Frederick C. Beiser