By Wim Pelupessy, Reurd Ruben
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Extra info for Agrarian Policies in Central America
In El Salvador external agents may have enhanced state autonomy, but their actions did not necessarily strengthen the reform process. Fourth, the insufﬁcient extension of the Salvadoran reform and its slowness are often criticized because these augmented uncertainty in the countryside, resulting in a lack of new investment in agriculture and even in a decrease in investments – as, for instance, in the case of cotton. This does not however seem to be a conclusive point. When we talk about the affected area, the scope was comparable to the 42 Land Reform in El Salvador and Taiwan Taiwanese case, but the beneﬁciaries of the measures were relatively fewer.
This instrument differed radically from the income redistribution measure used in Taiwan to meet the political goals in the ﬁrst place. The agrarian cooperatives of El Salvador were closely monitored and controlled by the state institute ISTA, while technical and ﬁnancial assistance came from USAID. In the 1980s the US had spent about $800 million on the land reform, though a signiﬁcant part was used to repair infrastructural damage caused by the civil war and to compensate big landowners. 28 Land Reform in El Salvador and Taiwan Large and medium landowners who were potentially affected by Phase III of the reform used death-squads and other paramilitary gangs to expel tenants who might qualify for land purchase.
Second, prereform institutional restrictions were present for the bimodal as well as the unimodal development case. The overconcentration of land and increasing landlessness restricted Salvadoran growth, while the tenancy system and extreme land fragmentation were among the principal constraints in Taiwan. Both countries suffered from (relative) rural overpopulation. Third, land reform need not be purely market oriented; widespread and autonomous state intervention may be even seen as a condition for successful reform.
Agrarian Policies in Central America by Wim Pelupessy, Reurd Ruben