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Extra resources for Agriculture and Biodiversity: Developing Indicators for Policy Analysis: Proceedings from an OECD Expert Meeting, Zurich, Switzerland, November 2001
G. e. g. e. farmer education, knowledge and management skills). At this stage of OECD work it is the environmental dimension of sustainable agriculture which is of critical importance. g. g. g. g. g. e. biodiversity). g. e. rivers, lakes, groundwater, and coastal waters), the air/atmosphere, and human and animal food chains. x improve the management of the stocks and flows of natural resources and farm inputs associated with agriculture to help enhance environmental performance and agricultural productive efficiency.
4. 12). This process would also help in the development of standardised international biodiversity data sets, and consider that there is potential to make progress on achieving this. 5. 9). 3). 6. Many countries are in the process of developing criteria and thresholds to interpret biodiversity indicators, and in many cases the only practical baseline will be the first year from the beginning of when programmes are monitored. A number of baseline options can be considered for biodiversity, but setting such a baseline is a complex and often a relatively arbitrary process.
Concerning cattle breeding, artificial insemination and embryo transfer are more or less regularly applied while hybrid breeding is used beside the artificial insemination mainly for pigs (and poultry) (Figure 5). Up to now, in Germany, sheep and goats are usually reproducing naturally, so that no corresponding negative impact on genetic diversity has to be expected. Figure 5. Application rate of artificial insemination, embryotransfer and hybrid breeding for cattle and pigs (different periods) Cattle Pigs 1,0% 100% 80% 0,8% 80% 0,6% 60% 0,4% 40% Embryo transfer 0,2% 20% 60% Share Artificial insemination Share of embryo transfer Share of artificial insemination 100% Artificial insemination 40% 20% Hybrid breeding sows 0% 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 1960 1970 1980 1990 1999 0,0% 0% 1989 1993 1991 1997 1995 1999 Source: Calculated of the data from ADR, ZDS and StBA, several years each.
Agriculture and Biodiversity: Developing Indicators for Policy Analysis: Proceedings from an OECD Expert Meeting, Zurich, Switzerland, November 2001 by Organization for Economic Cooperation &