By World Health Organization
This e-book offers revised instruction values for the 4 commonest air pollution - particulate subject, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - in response to a up to date assessment of the accrued medical proof. the reason for number of every one instruction price is supported by means of a synthesis of knowledge rising from study at the overall healthiness results of every pollutant. therefore, those directions now additionally follow globally. they are often learn together with Air caliber instructions for Europe, 2d variation, that's nonetheless the authority on instruction values for all different air toxins.
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Additional info for Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005
The photochemical formation of tropospheric ozone from increased concentrations of methane and carbon monoxide may also lead to a higher ozone level on a global scale (37). Fig. 5 shows model calculations of mean afternoon surface ozone concentrations for the month of July. Particularly noteworthy is pollution over industrial areas in the United States, Europe and Asia. In these areas, ozone is formed as a secondary pollutant when emitted precursor pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and VOC react under the action of sunlight.
Short-term measurements indicated 1-hour average concentrations of more than 1000 μg/m3 (48). The City of Harare Health Department carries out routine air pollution monitoring at eight sites. Data available for 1995–2001 indicated that the typical annual average sulfur dioxide concentrations were about 100 μg/m3 in 2001 (49). Also, some of the heavily industrialized areas in Europe may still be experiencing high levels of sulfur dioxide. In some cities in the north-western corner of the Russian Federation, close to large primary smelters, daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide exceed 1000 μg/m3 (50,51).
The measurement methods used and information concerning data quality requirements have not always been reported and controlled. Data quality may thus vary from one city to another and from region to region. Representativeness of data Information about the ambient air pollution levels have been based on measurements representative for different types of area and microenvironment, such as: • traffic, near roads and in streets; • urban areas, representative for the kilometre scale inside the urban airshed; and • rural areas, away from local sources representative for residential areas.
Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005 by World Health Organization