By Steve Potter
Fast revision notes for AS, with self-check questions and grade-boosting tutorials in a convenient A5-sized e-book. Written by means of a senior examiner and skilled instructor who is familiar with what scholars want for that ultimate -- quick -- check!Ready made revision notes hide the full of the AS path and scale back on revision time. Self money questions at each degree make sure revision is energetic and potent. Grade-boosting tutorials from the examiner supply specialist suggestion on how you can resolution examination questions and what pitfalls to prevent.
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Anus triglycerides and phospholipids, into glycerol and fatty acids; ● endopeptidases, which hydrolyse peptide bonds in the middle of protein molecules; ● exopeptidases, which hydrolyse peptide bonds at the ends of protein molecules (carboxypeptidases at the carboxyl end of the molecule, aminopeptidases at the amino end); ● dipeptidase, which hydrolyses dipeptides into amino acids. 56 D IGESTION IN A NIMALS (2) Region of gut Secretion Enzyme(s) & other contents Digestive action Buccal cavity (mouth) Stomach Amylase Mucus Pepsin (an endopeptidase) Hydrochloric acid Starch → maltose None – gives lubrication Protein → short chain peptides Saliva from salivary glands Gastric juice from gastric glands in stomach wall Lumen of small Bile intestine (duodenum and ileum) Bile salts Sodium hydrogen -carbonate Pancreatic juice Amylase Lipase Trypsin (an endopeptidase) Exopeptidases Cells in wall of ileum Maltase Dipeptidase None – provides optimum pH for pepsin and kills bacteria None – emulsify fats, giving larger area for enzyme action Raises pH: inactivates pepsin, gives optimum pH for other enzymes Starch → maltose Lipids → fatty acids and glycerol Proteins → short chain peptides Short chain peptides → dipeptides Maltose → α-glucose Dipeptides → amino acids Pepsin and trypsin are both secreted in an inactive form (pepsinogen and trypsinogen, respectively).
Most photosynthesis occurs in the palisade mesophyll. These cells have most chloroplasts. Air spaces in the spongy mesophyll allow movement of gases and water vapour through the leaf. Xylem in the vein (vascular bundle) transports water to the leaf. g. sugars and amino Cuticle Upper acids, to and from the leaf. epidermis The main function of the leaf is photosynthesis. For this the plant needs CO2 and H2O as ‘raw materials’. H2O is always supplied by the xylem. CO2 comes from respiration and from outside the leaf.
4 The gene codes for the normal transport protein (not made in sufferers). This results in the formation of normal (non-viscous) mucus instead of the viscous mucus made in CF sufferers. 37 Check yourself 1 The flow chart shows the main DNA Plasmids containing antibiotic resistance gene stages in genetic production of a Cut by enzyme A transgenic bacterium. DNA (a) Name enzymes A and B. (2) fragments Enzyme B (b) Why is it important that the + Bacteria DNA fragments and the open Recombinant DNA plasmids uptake plasmids have sticky ends?
AS Biology (Instant Revision) by Steve Potter