Download e-book for iPad: Atmospheric Chemical Compounds. Sources, Occurrence and by T. E. Graedel

By T. E. Graedel

ISBN-10: 0122944852

ISBN-13: 9780122944857

This functional reference examines the constitution and homes of the ambience, together with listings of compounds in clouds, fog, rain, snow, and ice; a list of compounds detected within the stratosphere; and a compendium of compounds in indoor air. An advent to carcinogenicity and bioassay of atmospheric compounds can be awarded. Readers will locate the large cross-referencing particularly useful--compounds could be situated by means of chemical style, identify, CAS registry quantity, or resource.

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Example text

The genetic component of cancerous diseases is also suggested by variation among different ethnic groups of different types of cancer. Also, it is well known that a variety of congenital malformations precede neoplasms in man. In 371 carefully studied cases of childhood malignant disease in Tokyo, 41% of the children demonstrated congenital malformation, in contrast to 13% of the children without neoplasms. Other examples, such as aniridia (the absence of the iris) associated with Wilm's tumor, also exist.

The figure shows chloride ion concentrations to be highest over the oceans, presumably as a result of heavy sea spray. Urban areas have high concentrations as well, a reflection of industrial activity. In more remote regions, low concentrations indicate the absence of sources and the effects of diffusion from high concentration regions. Chloride ion is present in the stratosphere as well as the troposphere, probably as a result of haloalkane chemistry. The absence of concentration flags in some regimes indicates that measurements of CI" have not been made there, to the authors' knowledge.

Except for the rare gases, elements are rare except for mercury, which is emitted by a number of natural and anthropogenic processes. In contrast to the elements, elemental ions are ubiquitous. Many are found in aerosols and in all forms of precipitation. They arise from industrial processes such as coal combustion and smelting, but are probably produced in greater quantity by the ionization of soil or seawater constituents present in the atmosphere. 1-1. This figure is the prototype for a number of similar diagrams, used throughout this book to show absolute and relative concentrations of abundant species in different atmospheric regimes.

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Atmospheric Chemical Compounds. Sources, Occurrence and Bioassay by T. E. Graedel


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