By Russell Gmirkin
Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus proposes a provocative new conception concerning the date and conditions of the composition of the Pentateuch. Gmirkin argues that the Hebrew Pentateuch used to be composed in its entirety approximately 273-272 BCE by way of Jewish students at Alexandria that later traditions credited with the Septuagint translation of the Pentateuch into Greek. the first facts is literary dependence of Gen. 1-11 on Berossus' Babyloniaca (278 BCE) and of the Exodus tale on Manetho's Aegyptiaca (c. 285-280 BCE), and the geo-political information inside the desk of countries. a couple of symptoms element to a provenance of Alexandria, Egypt for a minimum of a few parts of the Pentateuch. That the Pentateuch, drawing on literary resources discovered on the nice Library of Alexandria, was once composed at nearly a similar date because the Septuagint translation, offers compelling proof for a few point of communique and collaboration among the authors of the Pentateuch and the Septuagint students at Alexandria's Museum. The overdue date of the Pentateuch, as established via literary dependence on Berossus and Manetho, has vital results: the definitive overthrow of the chronological framework of the Documentary speculation, and a overdue, third century BCE date for significant parts of the Hebrew Bible which express literary dependence at the Pentateuch.
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Extra info for Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus. Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch
The Amulets from Ketef Hinnom: A New Edition and Evaluation," BASOR 334 (2004): 41-71; A. Yardeni, "Remarks on the Priestly Blessing on Two Ancient Amulets from Jerusalem," VT4\ (1991): 176-85. Barkay dated the amulets to the late seventh century BCE under Josiah based on archaeological and paleographical evidence; Yardeni and others date them at latest a few decades later in the early sixth century BCE, based on paleography. 25. See especially B. Levine, Numbers 1-20 (AB 4; New York: Doubleday, 1993), 238-^4.
There is a broad agreement that CH (Classical Hebrew) and LBH (Late Biblical Hebrew) had distinctive identifiable features and that CH was earlier. CH is typically correlated with the pre-exilic period and LBH with the exilic period. Hurvitz argued that since the language of P is CH, P predated such LBH compositions as Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah. 76 The main problem in current applications of this approach is not the relative chronology of CH and LBH, nor the relative antiquity of P: the main criticism of the linguistic approach to dating biblical texts is the absolute dates assigned to CH and LBH.
Exod 20-23; 34. Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 392-99. 2 Kgs 22:8-13. Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 26. , 487. , 28, 59-60, 404-5. Cf. , 406. , 409 n. 1. 24 Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus the multiplicity of sources behind the Pentateuch. One hardly needs comment on the extraordinary support the Documentary Hypothesis has enjoyed in the last hundred years as the regnant theory on the development of the Pentateuch. 12 1. Historical Premises of the Documentary Hypothesis The historical framework of the Documentary Hypothesis rests above all on an acceptance of the biblical reports of events under Josiah (2 Kgs 22-23) and later under Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh 8-10): As we are accustomed to infer the date of the composition of Deuteronomy from its publication and introduction by Josiah, so we must infer the date of the composition of the Priestly Code from its publication and introduction by Ezra and Nehemiah...
Berossus and Genesis, Manetho and Exodus. Hellenistic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch by Russell Gmirkin