By Roger Koppl (auth.)
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Extra info for Big Players and the Economic Theory of Expectations
Third, Mises exaggerates the difference between a priori and a posteriori and, therefore, the difference between theory and history. Any theory, any argument, has its a priori element. ” The antecedent, A, is the argument’s a priori. Some elements of the a priori will have been “tested,” others are guesses. Still others are conventions and thus true merely on account of how we use language. Any element of this a priori can be criticized as not true or not useful. Thus the a priori is always present, but it is neither inviolable nor immune from criticism.
Objects resist us and may be acted upon. ” They appear to us “from the outset,” as existing “within a horizon of familiarity and pre-acquaintanceship” given by the knowledge currently “taken for granted until further notice” (1953, p. 8). In everyday action, some knowledge is taken for granted at any time. This taken-for-granted knowledge is a collection of “pre-experiences” of the world. These “unquestioned pre-experiences” are not themselves real experiences. They are “from the outset, at hand as typical” (1953, p.
Collective” entities exist and operate. But they operate through the agency of individual actors and individual actions. “A collective whole is a particular aspect of the actions of various individuals and as such a real thing determining the course of events” (1966, p. 43). I use the term “methodological individualism” with some misgivings. It has come to hurt, not help communication. Methodological individualism is easily confused with ontological individualism, the doctrine that individuals are “prior” to society and have the properties they do “independently” of society.
Big Players and the Economic Theory of Expectations by Roger Koppl (auth.)